In the current hardware of electricity systems, the supply-demand-balance has a very important implication for maintaining the system’s frequency, which needs to be stable each second of the day for the system to function properly. Non-standard frequencies can harm both transformers and appliances in people’s homes. As the energy mix changes, the feasibility of utility-scale photovoltaics as a frequency response is an area of current interest and research. The Faraday Grid resolves short-term balancing issues by modulating power flows to reduce their noise, dynamically managing the voltage and the frequency in the electricity grid in doing so.
All actors in the electricity industry are responsible for security of supply. That is to say electricity provision to the end-users, within agreed levels of continuity and quality. For years, each part of the energy supply chain - from resource extraction to generation, transmission, distribution, markets, and increasingly end use - has relied on using digital systems. The digital connectivity of electricity grids and digital trading platforms for electricity are experiencing considerable innovation. This text considers grid resilience and risks to energy and cyber security in our society.